The scrap car recycling industry in China is a labor-intensive industry, with backward dismantling methods and low technical content of technical equipment. Most dismantling enterprises are still in the low-level simple dismantling stage, with low production efficiency and poor economic benefits. Automobile disassembly line enterprises have poor site conditions, few leak-proof treatment equipment and no oil-water separation and splash-proof environmental protection equipment. Waste oil treatment is just a simple discharge and collection. Most enterprises lack the operating equipment and experience of airbags. Most enterprises naturally release freon from air conditioners in cars, and pollution caused by waste oil and liquid is also common. In addition, there are related problems in the operating system of technical recycling of scrapped vehicles in China.
1. Disassembly method and selection of automobile disassembly line
The dismantling process is to carry out harmless treatment on scrapped vehicles and dismantle reusable parts and main parts; Decompose and store according to the material type of each item; Procedures and methods for flattening or cutting body and structural parts.
2. Classification disassembly method
According to the goal of second-hand car recycling, that is, parts reuse or materials reuse. Dismantling methods are divided into non-destructive dismantling, quasi-destructive dismantling and destructive dismantling.
Destructive disassembly refers to the parts that are disassembled at will without restrictions. Quasi-destructive disassembly mainly refers to the destructive disassembly of connectors. Various tools can be used to cut bolts, punches or saw parts, and basic parts, movable parts and connectors can be used to separate hydraulic tools. For example, hydraulic scissors can be used to quickly disassemble parts; Hydraulic tongs can be used for quasi-destructive disassembly. The disassembly of used automobile parts can be divided into two levels, namely the disassembly depth.
3. Select the disassembly mode
The selection process of disassembly method of automobile disassembly line is to select the disassembly method according to the state of scrapped automobile or the damage degree of parts, and then determine the disassembly depth. Disassembly of scrapped automobile parts cannot be considered in the reverse assembly order. The main reason is that the dismantling of scrapped cars has the following characteristics:
(1) Effectiveness: Non-destructive demolition is selected, but the efficiency is low.
Limitation: The demolition depth is determined according to the principle of great economic benefit and little environmental impact.
(3) Use: The disassembled parts are damaged due to deformation or corrosion, and have no use value. For reusable parts, non-destructive and quasi-destructive methods should be selected for disassembly on the premise of meeting economic benefits. When selecting the disassembly method for material recovery, the following requirements shall also be met:
(1) It can effectively separate various materials.
(2) It can improve the purity of the remaining fragments.
(3) Hazardous substances can be separated.
4. Disassembly process operation
The assembly line equipment of automobile disassembly line includes transport vehicles, transport guide rails and disassembly stations. The bottom of the transport vehicle is provided with a guide wheel, which is matched with the transport guide rail and can move along the transport guide rail. Dismantling stations include engine dismantling station, parts dismantling station, waste oil extraction station and hazardous waste dismantling station.